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Surface Area Loading

Surface Area Loading

It is possible to design an element in a variety of sizes all of which would in theory give the desired wattage load or power density dissipated per unit area. However, it is essential that the load on the surface of the element is not too high as the transfer of heat by conduction, convection or radiation from the element may not be rapid enough to prevent it over-heating and failing prematurely.

The suggested surface loading range for the type of appliance and element are shown below – but this may need to be lower for an element working with more frequent operating cycles, or at nearly its maximum operating temperature, or in harsh atmospheres.

Appliance 元素 类型 Suggested Surface Loading
Range (W/cm2)
Fire Spiral 元素 in Free 空气 4.5 – 6.0
Fire Pencil Bar 6.0 – 9.5
Band Heater Mica-Wound 元素 4.0 – 5.5
Toaster Mica-Wound 元素 3.0 – 4.0
Convector Spiral 元素 3.5 – 4.5
Storage Heater Spiral 元素 1.5 – 2.5
Fan Heater Spiral 元素 9.0 – 15.0
Oven 元素 Tubular
Sheathed 元素
8.0 – 12.0
Grill 元素 15.0 – 20.0
Hotplate 17.0 – 22.0
Water Immersion Heater 25.0 – 35.0
Kettle 元素 35.0 – 50.0

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